Powhatan Civil War Round Table
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DISPATCHES FROM THE POWHATAN CIVIL WAR ROUNDTABLE NEWSLETTER

 

AUGUST 2017

Asperger’s syndrome (AS) is one of a group of neurological disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). People with AS exhibit three primary symptoms:

  • difficulty with social interaction
  • engaging in repetitive behavior
  • rigidity in thinking and a focus on rules and routines

Those who knew him described Thomas J. Jackson as taciturn, anti-social, odd, and eccentric.  Could those characteristics indicate that Stonewall Jackson, arguably one of the greatest military minds of the Civil War, lived with Asperger’s syndrome?

This month we welcome Dr. Don Marsh, a Fellow of the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists (ASHP), and the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) who will discuss General Jackson, and whether Asperger’s Syndrome could have affected his decisions during the war.

Dr. Marsh has worked in academia, hospital pharmacy, community pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry.  He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Pharmacy from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy & Science in 1976, and completed a Residency in Hospital Pharmacy at the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia.  He also received a Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the Medical College of Virginia School of Pharmacy, Richmond, VA in 1982.

Don held a faculty position of Clinical Associate Professor of Pharmacy, at the University of North Carolina School of Pharmacy, and Clinical Associate Professor of Family Medicine, at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC.

Our speaker’s primary interests are in the areas of Infectious Diseases, Cardiology and Geriatrics, and the American Civil War.  He received a Master’s Degree in Civil War History through American Military University, part of the American Public University System, and has many papers on historical subjects.

We look forward to his presentation, and hope you will join us.

NEXT MONTH

Thursday, September 21, 2017, Eric Whittenberg on Generals Sherman and Johnston.

NEW MENU OPTIONS

As announced last month, The County Seat Restaurant has changed their meal policy for club meetings.  Going forward, The County Seal will offer a main course, or the soup and salad bar. 

This month the main course will consist of salad, meatloaf, peas & pearl onions, and scalloped potatoes.

Please specify your dining preference (main course or soup and salad bar) when you submit your pre-paid reservation, which is due the Tuesday prior to each meeting.  This month reservations must be received by August 15th.

PCWRT VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES

If you have an interest in becoming more involved with the PCWRT, or have a special skill to offer, why not consider volunteering? New ideas and new people are the life-blood of any organization, and the PCWRT is no different. We need new volunteers with new ideas to move forward into our second decade. To get involved, please see one of our Leadership Committee members at our next meeting.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

See our website’s FAQ page for a list of our most frequently asked questions. Don’t see your question addressed there? E-mail us at info@PowhatanCWRT.org

CIVIL WAR QUOTES

"General" I remarked, "How is it that you can keep so cool and appear so utterly insensible to danger in such a storm of shell and bullets as rained about you when your hand was hit?" He instantly became grave and reverential in his manner, and answered, in a low tone of great earnestness: "Captain, my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed. God has fixed the time for my death. I do not concern myself about that, but to be always ready, no matter when it may overtake me." He added, after a pause, looking me full in the face: "That is the way all men should live, and then all would be equally brave"

Lt. General Thomas Jackson speaking to Captain John D. Imboden

Book Talk

To the Bitter End: Appomattox, Bennett Place, and the Surrenders of the Confederacy

Robert M. Dunkerly will bring to light little-known facts as he uncovers the many confusing and chaotic twists and turns of often-overlooked events from the surrender at Appomattox through those following at Greensboro, Citronelle, and the Trans-Mississippi.

Location: White House and Museum of the Confederacy

Cost: Included with Museum admission; free for members.

Program Date: Friday, August 25, 2017 - 12:00pm

THIS MONTH IN THE CIVIL WAR 1863 - Courtesy History Learning Site

August 1, 1863 - The Confederate spy Belle Boyd was arrested and imprisoned in Washington DC. Jefferson Davis offered an amnesty to any Southern soldier absent without leave. This was becoming a chronic problem for the South and Davis hoped to rectify it in this manner. However, he was unaware that the North was experiencing a similar problem

August 2, 1863 - plans were submitted to build a suitable artillery gun platform in the marshland near Charleston to enable the North to use large caliber guns against the city. However, as the city was nearly 8,000 meters from this platform, even the largest caliber guns would have been at the end of their range.

August 4, 1863 - Union engineers started to build the gun platform on Morris Island to allow for the bombardment of Charleston. Logs were forced vertically down 20 feet through the mud into the sand substratum. Pine logs were then laid across these logs, which in turn were covered with 13,000 sandbags that contained 800 tons of earth. This was capable of supporting an 8-inch 200-pounder Parrott rifle. It was impossible to disguise what they were doing and the defenders of Charleston responded with strengthening the city’s defenses.

August 6, 1863 - President Lincoln proclaimed this day as a day of thanksgiving for the recent Union victories. Businesses in the North were shut as all were encouraged to attend church services.

August 8, 1863 - Robert E Lee offered his resignation and took full responsibility for the disaster at Gettysburg. On no occasion did he try to blame a subordinate officer – a problem in the Union’s Army of the Potomac that created many divisions among senior generals who could never be totally sure who they could trust. Davis refused Lee’s offer

August 12, 1863 - Union gunships arrived off Charleston to give the engineers more cover from Confederate artillery attacks. In particular the 10-inch guns at Battery Wagner were proving a real concern. Battery Wagner was at the far seaward end of Morris Island and had originally been built to defend the harbor entrance into Charleston. Its guns were in easy range of the Union engineers still constructing their platform but also now very open to a naval assault by Union gunships

August 17, 1863 - 450 Union soldiers managed to move the 200-pounder Parrott gun to its base. It was nicknamed the “Swamp Angel”.

August 18, 1863 - President Lincoln tried out the new Spencer Repeating Carbine. Suitably impressed, he gave it his approval. The rifle was more accurate than previous ones issued to Union troops and, correctly used, it could fire more bullets over the same period of time. The Spencer rifle was to give the North’s infantrymen a major advantage over the South’s and 60,000 were eventually supplied.

August 21, 1863 - The “Swamp Angel” was ready for use. The North demanded that the South had to evacuate Battery Wagner or that they would fire on Charleston.

August 22, 1863 - As the South had not agreed to the North’s demands, the first shot by the “Swamp Angel” was fired at Charleston at 01.30. The gunners could not actually see their target but artillery officers had spent the previous day working out the necessary predicted range and angle of fire. In total 12 shots were fired in quick succession, including four incendiary rounds.

August 23, 1863 - The officer in command of defending Charleston, General Beauregard, wrote to the Union commander on Morris Island, General Gillmore, claiming that he was firing on innocent women and children, none of whom had been given the chance to leave the city. “You’re firing a number of the most destructive missiles ever used in war into the midst of a city taken unawares and filled with sleeping women and children will give you a bad eminence in History.” Gillmore replied that the city had been given fair warning and that if women and children were in the city, it was the fault of the city’s commanders and not his. The issue was solved not by diplomacy but by the “Swamp Angel” itself. After firing a further 20 rounds, the breech exploded and put the gun out of use.

August 24, 1863 - Fort Sumter, also built to guard Charleston, surrendered after a 7-day artillery bombardment. Hit by over 2,500 rounds, the fort was reduced to ruin. However, when the troops in the fort were seen trying to remove the remaining artillery guns, which were going to be shipped to Charleston to bolster the city’s defenses, a further 627 rounds were fired at it.

August 26, 1863 - Union troops moved to within 250 meters of Battery Wagner, which had yet to be put out of action. However, any further movement forward was severely hampered when it became clear that the battery had been surrounded by “sub-surface torpedo mines” activated by foot pressure. However, General Beauregard believed that the fall of Battery Wagner was inevitable and planned for its evacuation.

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JULY 2017

Grant's logistics from the Wilderness to Petersburg

The Overland Campaign of 1864 pitted Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia against the Union Army of the Potomac commanded by George G. Meade, but directed by Ulysses S. Grant, and resulted in arguably some of the most important battles of the Civil War: The Wilderness; Spotsylvania Court House; Yellow Tavern; North Anna; Cold Harbor; Trevilian Station

Starting with fifteen days of supplies, U.S. Grant intended to forage from the countryside of Virginia for a minimum of twenty days, with the intention of becoming “established on the James River.”  The results were massive casualties, the Siege of Petersburg, and ultimately end the war. 

This month we welcome Steve Anders to discuss one of his favorite topics, Grant’s logistics during the 3-day Overland Campaign.

Dr. Anders was born on September 13, 1946, in Columbus, Ohio, and grew up in nearby Washington Court House where he graduated from Washington High School in 1964. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in History (1968), a Master of Arts degree in History (1973), and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in History (1981), all from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.

Dr. Anders’ specialties include U.S. Military History, The American South and the American Civil War. Prior to becoming the Quartermaster Historian at Fort Lee in 1984, Dr. Anders served as a Documents Librarian at Miami University and taught at Indiana University East in Richmond, Indiana. He taught a U.S. History survey course at John Tyler Community College in Chester, Virginia and most recently taught mini-courses on the history of Fort Lee Civil War Logistics for the Osher Institute at the University of Richmond.

Dr. Anders served as the Command Historian for the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps from 1984 to 2009, where he advised The Quartermaster General on all matters pertaining to military history. For nearly 25 years he developed and taught history courses at the Quartermaster School, conducted historical Staff Rides and collected thousands of primary documents for the Quartermaster Corps Archives. He researched and wrote historical articles and monographs and in 2007 co-authored with Mr. Tim O’Gorman, The Illustrated History of Fort Lee.

Dr. Anders served as an enlisted Soldier in the U.S. Army from 1968 to 1970 which included a year-long tour with the 25th Infantry Division in Vietnam. He is a Distinguished Member of the Quartermaster Regiment and the Distinguished Order of Saint Martin; and has been awarded the General Brehon B. Somervell Medal of Excellence, the Department of Army Commander’s Award for Civilian Service, the Meritorious Civilian Service Award, and the Superior Civilian Service Award. He was honored with a Distinguished Instructor Award in 2002 and was selected as the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command’s Civilian Instructor of the Year in 2003.

From January 2010 until his retirement from Federal Service in January 2013, Dr. Anders served as the Command Historian for the U.S. Army Combined Arms Support Command and Fort Lee.  He also held the title of Professor of Military and Logistics History at the Army Logistics University at Fort Lee. Dr.

Anders is married to Colleen Langen Anders, a lifelong elementary school teacher and recently retired Assistant Principal at Bettie Weaver Elementary School in Chesterfield County, Virginia. They have two sons, Christopher, 23, and Matthew, 22.

We look forward to his presentation, and hope you will join us.

NEXT MONTH

Thursday, August 17, 2017, Speaker and topic TBA

PCWRT VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES

If you have an interest in becoming more involved with the PCWRT, or have a special skill to offer, why not consider volunteering? New ideas and new people are the life-blood of any organization, and the PCWRT is no different. We need new volunteers with new ideas to move forward into our second decade. To get involved, please see one of our Leadership Committee members at our next meeting.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

See our website’s FAQ page for a list of our most frequently asked questions. Don’t see your question addressed there? E-mail us at info@PowhatanCWRT.org

CIVIL WAR QUOTES

The world has never seen so bloody or so protracted a battle as the one being fought and I hope never will again.  The enemy were really whipped yesterday but their situation is desperate beyond anything heretofore known. To lose this battle they lose their cause.  As bad as it is they have fought for it with a gallantry worthy of a better.

Ulysses S. Grant, May 13, 1864

Book Talk- To the Bitter End: Appomattox, Bennett Place, and the Surrenders of the Confederacy

Location: White House and Museum of the Confederacy

Robert M. Dunkerly will bring to light little-known facts as he uncovers the many confusing and chaotic twists and turns of often-overlooked events from the surrender at Appomattox through those following at Greensboro, Citronelle, and the Trans-Mississippi.

Cost: Included with Museum admission; free for members.

Program Date: Friday, August 25, 2017 - 12:00pm

THIS MONTH IN THE CIVIL WAR 1863 - Courtesy History Learning Site

July 1, 1863 - The Confederates believed that the men at Gettysburg who had repulsed their advance on June 30th were militia and not regular soldiers. The commander of the Confederate force in the area, Henry Heth, decided to continue to advance on Gettysburg to secure what he deemed to be much needed shoes. What started as a minor clash soon developed into something more. 2,500 Union infantrymen advanced to Gettysburg to give support and ended up capturing 1,000 Confederate troops and Brigadier-General Archer. More and more Confederate and Union infantry advanced on Gettysburg until seemingly overnight 22,000 Confederate troops and 16,500 Unionists are based in and around Gettysburg.

July 2, 1863 - Believing that he has superior numbers Lee ordered a full-scale attack against Union forces at Gettysburg. However, overnight, the Army of the Potomac had greatly increased its numbers so that Lee now faced 30,000 men. However, some units like the VI Corps had marched 30 miles overnight to be at Gettysburg and were hardly in a fit state to fight. In the initial stages of the Battle of Gettysburg, the upper hand rested with Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia.

July 3, 1863 - Lee was suffering from dysentery and this may have affected his decision-making. He believed that the Union force had shored up its flanks fearing that Lee would try to outflank them – not an unusual tactic used by Lee in the past. Lee decided to attack the heart of the Union’s forces believing that he could drive a wedge through the Union forces, and that once separated they would withdraw in disarray. However, Lee’s calculations were wrong. By now, Meade’s Army of the Potomac numbered 85,000 to Lee’s 75,000. At 13:00 the South started an artillery bombardment on Union positions. However, by 15:00, the South’s supply of artillery shells had run low and they could not sustain the bombardment. Lee resorted to a full-scale infantry charge. 13,000 men armed with rifles and bayonets from Major-General Pickett’s division charged Union positions. 7,000 were killed or wounded and the division retreated in disorder. Acknowledging that he had made the wrong decision, Lee, riding among the survivors said, “This was all my fault. It is I that has lost this fight, and you must help me out of it the best you can.”

On what was a disastrous day for the Confederacy, on July 3rd John C. Pemberton offered the surrender of Vicksburg. Ulysses S. Grant insisted on, and got an unconditional surrender of the Confederate forces based in the besieged town.

July 4, 1863 - Both armies continued to face each other at Gettysburg, but neither was inclined to fight. That night Lee ordered a withdrawal: his army had lost 22,000 men killed or wounded in just 3 days – 25% of the Army of Northern Virginia. Meade had lost 23,000 men but had emerged from the Battle of Gettysburg as the victor. The Union was also better able to cope with such losses. Bodies of those killed at Gettysburg took weeks to clear and by November 1863 only 25% of those killed had received a proper burial. The local undertaker claimed that he could only manage to move, clean and bury 100 bodies a day. On this day, Vicksburg formally surrendered to Grant.

July 5, 1863 - Lee retreated with his severely weakened army, but no attempt was made by Meade’s Army of the Potomac to pursue them, such was the weakened state of his force. While Lee’s defeat at Gettysburg is seen as the turning point in the war, it has to be remembered that he withdrew with many Union prisoners.

July 6, 1863 - Meade’s army started to move out of Gettysburg, and followed Lee’s army but did nothing to actively engage it.

July 8, 1863 - Port Hudson surrendered. The Confederate force there had been severely weakened by lack of food and fresh water. Only 50% of the Confederate troops there were capable of fighting. They surrendered 20 cannon and 7,500 rifles.

July 11, 1863 - Meade decided that his men were sufficiently rested after Gettysburg and decided that the Army of the Potomac had to become more proactive. The last thing that Meade wanted was for Lee’s men to cross the Potomac River.

July 13, 1863 - New York experienced race riots. The first draft in the city was heavily slanted towards the Irish community of New York. They also believed that while they were away fighting African-Americans would take their jobs. This belief was enflamed by the Democrat state governor, Horatio Seymour. Homes of Republican politicians within the city were attacked. Any African-Americans that the mob could find were also attacked. That night the Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River and fooled Meade’s Army of the Potomac by leaving campfires alight giving the appearance that the men from Lee’s army were still in camp.

July 14, 1863 - riots continued in New York City; African Americans were murdered in the streets and city law enforcement agencies were unable to cope. Men from the Army of the Potomac were ordered to the city to restore law and order. When President Lincoln was informed that Lee’s army had crossed the Potomac, he very publicly expressed his anger with Meade for allowing this. “We had them within our grasp. We had to only stretch forth our hands and they were ours.”

July 15, 1863 - the riots in New York were finally brought to an end. However, 1,000 people were killed by the army, which caused huge resentment among the Irish community in the city.

July 16, 1863 - General Sherman, fresh from his success at Vicksburg, advanced on Jackson, Mississippi. The Confederate forces there, commanded by General Johnston, withdrew.

July 18, 1863 - Union forces suffered losses in their attempt to capture Battery Wagner, near Charleston. Battery Wagner was a Confederate redoubt about 2,500 meters from Fort Sumter. 1,515 Union men were lost in the attack, including seven senior Union commanders. The Confederacy lost 174 men.

July 25, 1863 - Union ironclads joined the assault on Battery Wagner. However, shore defenses were far better than anticipated by the Union troops.

July 29, 1863 - Union forces occupied the whole of Morris Island except Battery Wagner. If Wagner was captured, the Union could start a bombardment of Charleston.

JUNE 2017

"Ours is No Longer a Divided Country": The Path to Reunion and Reconciliation in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley.

This month, we welcome educator and author, Jonathan A. Noyalas and his topic, "Ours is No Longer a Divided Country" The Path to Reunion and Reconciliation in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley.

This presentation will explore the Civil War's impact on Virginia's Shenandoah Valley and how the visits of veterans from Union general Philip H. Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah to the region in 1883 and 1885 aided, to some degree, in healing the Civil War's wounds in the Valley. Additionally, the presentation will offer insight into reconciliation's limits in the region and the concerns "Southern Copperheads" presented to Confederate veterans who favored healing among former foes.

Jonathan A. Noyalas is the director of the McCormick Civil War Institute at Shenandoah University. Prof. Noyalas is the author or editor of eleven books on Civil War era history includingCivil War Legacy in the Shenandoah: Remembrance, Reunion, and Reconciliation.Additionally, Noyalas has authored more than 100 articles, essays, book chapters, and reviews which have appeared in a variety of scholarly and popular publications includingCivil War History, Civil War Times, America's Civil War, Civil War Monitor, Blue & Gray, Civil War News,andHallowed Ground.

In addition to teaching and writing Prof. Noyalas has consulted on a variety projects with the National Park Service, Civil War Trust, Shenandoah Valley Battlefields Foundation, and National Geographic. He has appeared on NPR's "With Good Reason" and C-SPAN's American History TV.

Noyalas is the recipient of numerous awards for his teaching, scholarship, and service including the highest honor that can be bestowed upon any professor at a college or university in the Commonwealth of Virginia--the State Council for Higher Education in Virginia's Outstanding Faculty Award.

To learn more about this month’s topic, click here for a most informative article by our speaker.

NEXT MONTH

Thursday, July 20, 2017, Steve Anders, on “Grant's Logistics - the Wilderness to Petersburg”

PCWRT VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES

If you have an interest in becoming more involved with the PCWRT, or have a special skill to offer, why not consider volunteering? New ideas and new people are the life-blood of any organization, and the PCWRT is no different. We need new volunteers with new ideas to move forward into our second decade. To get involved, please see one of our Leadership Committee members at our next meeting.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

See our website’s FAQ page for a list of our most frequently asked questions. Don’t see your question addressed there? E-mail us at info@PowhatanCWRT.org

CIVIL WAR QUOTES

“It affords us pleasure to meet you under our own vine and fig tree … we welcome you most cordially.… It is true we had … unpleasantness in the long ago, but I venture to say that the man who waves the bloody shirt to-day never smelled gun powder even in those days that people were so careless with it.”

R.D. Funkhouser, formerly of the 49th Virginia

Book Talk: A Civil War Captain and His Lady

Joshua Moore was an Irish immigrant. Jennie Lindsay was the daughter of an Illinois senator. He was a captain in the 17thIllinois Volunteers. She was the daughter of an ardent Copperhead. Despite these circumstances, they fell in love and corresponded for three years. Through their letters, author Gene Barr crafts an intimate look at their relationship against the backdrop of war.
Program Date:

Saturday, June 10, 2017 - 1:00pm

Location:

White House and Museum of the Confederacy

Cost:

Included with Museum admission; free to members

THIS MONTH IN THE CIVIL WAR 1863 - Courtesy History Learning Site

June 2, 1863 - General Lee decided to move north his Army of Northern Virginia. His hope was to draw General Hooker’s Army of the Potomac after him and away from Virginia. Lee did not want a battle with Hooker as his motives were entirely defensive but he also realized that a further defeat for the Army of the Potomac would be a serious blow to the Union. So while Lee wished to be defensive, he also prepared to be offensive.

June 3, 1863 - The Army of Northern Virginia left Fredericksburg and moved north – 70,000 men with 300 artillery guns. Hooker’s Army of the Potomac was 120,000 strong. Hooker also had the advantage of intelligence as two Confederate deserters had given themselves up to Union forces and had told them about the planned movements of Lee’s army.

June 4, 1863 - Rationing was introduced in Vicksburg for the besieged population – soldiers and civilians.

June 5, 1863 - A rearguard Confederate force at Fredericksburg clashed with probing Union forces in what was called the Battle of Franklin’s Crossing. The Union force learned that the defenses of Fredericksburg were strong, while the Confederate force, commanded by General Stuart, decided that the ‘attack’ was merely a demonstration of strength to unsettle the remaining Confederate defenders.

June 6, 1863 - President Lincoln and General Hooker clashed over what to do with Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Lincoln wanted Hooker to pursue Lee (as Lee himself had hoped for) while Hooker wanted to take the opportunity to attack what was now a poorly defended Richmond. Not for the first time did the President, as Commander-in-Chief, clash with his generals. In this case, Hooker’s desire was warranted as Lee had already decided that if Richmond, at any time, was threatened he would call off his march north and return to the Confederate capital. This was the one opportunity when Hooker could have attacked Richmond when it was poorly defended. Lincoln wanted a more aggressive campaign.

June 9, 1863 - Union cavalry attacked General Stuart’s cavalry force near Brandy Station. Some 22,000 men fought here – the largest cavalry clash of the war. Both sides were evenly matched and the Union force, commanded by Pemberton, nearly defeated Stuart’s men, but news of advancing Confederate infantry convinced Pemberton that withdrawal was his best option rather than continuing the fight. Stuart’s men had a high reputation among Pemberton’s men, so this near victory did a great deal to boost Union morale, especially among the cavalry.

June 11, 1863 - Two 10-inch artillery guns arrived at Vicksburg for Grant’s army. They greatly boost the Union’s ability to destroy the defenses there. Citizens in Vicksburg took to living in caves to ensure their safety from the artillery bombardment.

June 12, 1863 - Rumors of an invasion by Lee’s men led to many fleeing their homes in Union areas near to the border with the South. Few responded to a call by the Pennsylvania governor for volunteers for a state militia.

June 14, 1863 - A Unionist force tried to end the siege at Port Hudson. While Northern troops were doing the besieging, they were suffering acute medical casualties as a result of the dire environment they were in. The attack was an attempt to end all this. It failed and the Confederate defenders held out. The Union lost 4000 men in the attack.

June 15, 1863 - The Confederates captured Winchester. They took 4,500 prisoners along with 200,000 rounds of ammunition, 300 wagons and 300 horses.

June 17, 1863 - The South lost one of its ironclads, the CSS Atlanta.

June 20, 1863 - The citizens of Baltimore started to build defenses around their city fearing an attack by Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Cavalry units from both Lee’s and Hooker’s armies clashed almost on a daily basis.

June 27, 1863 - Hooker resigned as commander of the Army of the Potomac after one argument too many with his superior General Halleck. Hooker believed that Halleck was deliberately undermining his authority by refusing to allow him to do as he wished with the men under his command. Hooker’s resignation was accepted and General George Meade replaced him.

June 29, 1863 - Meade immediately ordered the Army of the Potomac to hunt out the Army of Northern Virginia. Whereas Hooker wanted to wait and see what Lee intended, Meade wanted to engage him as soon as was feasible.

June 30, 1863 - Lee’s scouts kept him well-informed to the whereabouts of the Army of the Potomac. He ordered his men to march on Cashtown. A unit of Confederate troops was sent to Gettysburg where it was believed a stash of military boots was kept. The men, from III Corps, came across Unionist troops from Brigadier-General Buford’s cavalry division and withdrew.

APRIL 2017

Kelly Hancock on “One Bright Moment: The Wedding of Hetty Cary and John Pegram”

Born in Baltimore on May 15, 1836, Hetty Cary was related to two of Virginia's most influential families, the Jeffersons (through her mother's family) and the Randolphs (through her paternal grandmother, Virginia Randolph Cary).

When the Civil War began, Hetty gave her support to the Southern cause.  Whether enthusiastically waving a smuggled Confederate flag in the face of Union soldiers in Baltimore, or by smuggling drugs and clothing through the blockade with her sister Jennie, Hetty did not hide her Confederate sympathies, and soon faced arrest or exile from her Union hometown.

Choosing exile and the South, Hetty and Jennie escaped to Richmond where they resided with their cousin Constance Cary and her mother. The three young ladies became known as the “Cary Invincibles,” and earned fame for making the first three battle flags of the Confederacy.

John Pegram was born inPetersburg, Virginia in 1832, the oldest son of third generationplanterJames West Pegram and Virginia Johnson Pegram. His grandfather had been amajor general, commanding all Virginia forces during theWar of 1812. His father, James Pegram, was a prominent attorney, militia brigadier general, and bank president in Richmond

After his father’s unexpected death in 1844, Pegram’s mother opened a girl’s school in Richmond to support herself and her five children.  Six years later, Pegram attended West Point with future generals, J.E.B. Stuart, Stephen D. Leeand, Oliver O. Howard, and was commissioned as asecond lieutenant upon graduation.

After learning of the secession of Virginia, Pegram resigned his lieutenant's commission and accepted a commission as alieutenant colonel in the Confederate Army,and assigned command of the20th Virginia Infantry.  Pegram was imprisoned for six months after surrendering his regiment during the Battle of Rich Mountain in 1861.  After receiving parole in January 1862, he traveled to Richmond, where during a party at his mother’s home he met Hetty Cary, and thus began one of the most famous romances of the Civil War South.

This month, we welcome Kelly Hancock of the American Civil War Museum and White House of the Confederacy, who will take us back to “One Bright Moment: The Wedding of Hetty Cary and John Pegram.”

Kelly’s presentation will relate the story of Hetty Cary and John Pegram, and the events surrounding their wedding on January 19, 1865. Hailed as the social event of the season, the wedding of one of the most beautiful belles in the South to a dashing brigadier general was one bright moment amid the tragedy and gloom experienced in Virginia during 1865.  However, Kelly reminds us, ill omens preceded the wedding, and tragedy would follow soon on its heels.

Kelly Hancock serves as the American Civil War Museum’s Interpretation and Programs Manager, coordinating the research, development, and implementation of interpretive programs for public audiences both on and off-site; supporting the work of the Education Department by leading projects focused on the heritage traveler audience; and collaborating on offerings for the teacher audience.

A native of New Mexico, Kelly received her B. A. in history along with her teaching certification from Eastern New Mexico University. She taught 7th grade social studies before moving to Richmond. Kelly began work at The Museum of the Confederacy in 1998 and served as Manager of Programs and Education from 2002 - 2013. With the creation of the American Civil War Museum, Kelly assumed her current position.

Kelly enjoys spending time with her husband Robert, playing with her two cats, Cordelia and Ophelia, supporting the work of her church, and feeding her new found passion for the 1920s.

We look forward to her presentation on this chapter of Richmond’s history. 

NEXT MONTH

Thursday, May 18, 2017, Dr. John Marsh on Stonewall Jackson and Autism

REMINDER: 2016 ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP DUES

Your Membership Dues for 2017 are now due. With no increase in price to PCWRT Membership, we hope you will encourage friends and neighbors to also join. All dues must be received by March 31, 2016 to insure continuation of your membership

Remit your membership today to:

Powhatan Civil War Round Table

P.O. Box 1144

Powhatan, Virginia 23139

PCWRT VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES

If you have an interest in becoming more involved with the PCWRT, or have a special skill to offer, why not consider volunteering? New ideas and new people are the life-blood of any organization, and the PCWRT is no different. We need new volunteers with new ideas to move forward into our second decade. To get involved, please see one of our Leadership Committee members at our next meeting.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

See our website’s FAQ page for a list of our most frequently asked questions. Don’t see your question addressed there? E-mail us at info@PowhatanCWRT.org

CIVIL WAR QUOTES

During the autumn of '61, to my cousins Hetty and Jennie and to me was entrusted the making of the first three battle flags of the Confederacy. They were jaunty squares of scarlet crossed with dark blue edged in white, the cross bearing stars to indicate the number of the seceded states. We set our best stitches upon them, edged with gold fringe, and when they were finished, dispatched one toGeneral Joseph E. Johnston, another to General Pierre Beauregard and the last to General Earl Van Dorn. The banners were made from red silk for the fields and blue silk for the crosses.

~Constance Cary~

THIS MONTH IN THE CIVIL WAR 1863 - Courtesy History Learning Site

April 2nd: Riots occurred in Richmond where people were becoming desperate at the economic plight of the Confederacy. Food in particular was in short supply. The riot was termed a “bread riot” by locals though it turned into a general looting session. It was only quelled when the rioters listened to Jefferson Davis who spoke to them in person and then threw the money in his pockets at them. It was a sufficient gesture to disperse the rioters.

April 3rd: Lincoln visited Hooker and pressurized him into an attack on Richmond. In response Hooker put in for 1.5 million ration packs.

April 4th: Hooker prepared the Army of the Potomac for an attack on Richmond. The Army’s Secret Service Department was ordered to prepare updated maps on the defenses at Richmond.

April 5th: Several Confederate ships were detained in Liverpool docks, as it was believed that they were blockade-runners.

April 10th: Lincoln reviewed the Army of the Potomac at its winter quarters in Falmouth, Virginia. The troops he met expressed their full confidence in Hooker – a view not totally shared by the president. Lincoln had to dampen down Hooker’s rhetoric about capturing Richmond and remind him that defeating Lee’s Army of Virginia was far more important and that Richmond was the bait to lure Lee into battle.

April 13th: General Burnside issued his General Order Number 38, which threatened the death penalty for anyone found guilty of treasonable behavior.

April 17th: This day saw the start of Colonel Ben Grierson’s Union legendary raid into the Confederacy. With 1700 cavalrymen, Grierson roamed 600 miles during his raid deep into the South. The raid lasted 16 days and within the Union army Grierson became a legend.

April 20th: Lincoln announced that West Virginia would join the Union on June 20th 1863.

April 21st: Hooker finalized his plan of attack. He hoped to fool the South into thinking that Fredericksburg was his main target while moving three corps of troops against Lee’s left flank. 2000 mules were acquired by Hooker to speed up the movement of his army

April 24th: The Confederate Congress passed a tax set at 8% on all agricultural produce grown in 1862 and a 10% tax on profits made from the sale of iron, clothing and cotton. There was much public hostility to these new taxes but a general acceptance that they were needed. The biggest problem facing the South’s economy was the fact that much land was used for the growing of cotton and not for food.

April 26th: Hooker’s offensive against Lee’s Army of Virginia and Richmond started. However, torrential rain turned many of the roads/tracks he used to mud and made movement very difficult.

April 28th: The rain has made movement so difficult that engineers had to lay logs on the surface of roads/tracks to allow wagons to move.

April 29th: Lee’s scouts informed him that it was their belief that the attack on Fredericksburg was a feint and that their observed movement of many men on Lee’s left flank was the real target of Hooker. Lee accepted the advice of his scouts and ordered Stonewall Jackson not to attack Union troops at Fredericksburg – despite Jackson’s request to do just this.

April 30th: Hooker ordered 10,000 cavalrymen to raid Lee’s communication bases. The raids, while impressive with regards to the number of men involved, achieved very little and if anything served to boost the confidence of Lee’s Army of Virginia.

MARCH 2017

JOHN V. QUARSTEIN – THE C.S.S. ALBERMARLE

For the 14th consecutive year, John V. Quarstein joins us on Thursday, March 17th to discuss the steam-powered ironclad ram of the Confederate Navy, The C.S.S. Albemarle.

John is an award-winning historian, preservationist, lecturer, and author. He served as director of the Virginia War Museum for over thirty years and, after retirement, is in demand as a speaker throughout the nation.

He has been involved in a wide variety of historic preservation initiatives including the creation of Civil War battlefield parks like Redoubt Park in Williamsburg or Lee’s Mill Park in Newport News as well as historic house museums such as Lee Hall Mansion and Endview Plantation. His current preservation endeavors feature the Rebecca Vaughan House, Lee Hall Depot, Causey’s Mill, Big Bethel Battlefield and Fort Monroe. John Quarstein also serves on several boards and commissions such as Virginia Civil War Trails, Virginia War of 1812 Bicentennial Commission Advisory Council and the Newport News Sesquicentennial Commission.

John Quarstein is the author of numerous books, including Fort Monroe: The Key to the South, A History of Ironclads: The Power of Iron Over Wood, Big Bethel: The First Battle, and The Monitor Boys: The Crew of the Union’s First Ironclad. His newest book is Sink Before Surrender: The CSS Virginia

He also has produced, narrated and written several PBS documentaries, such as Jamestown: Foundations of Freedom and the film series Civil War in Hampton Roads, which was awarded a 2007 Silver Telly. His latest film, Hampton From The Sea To The Stars, was a 2011 Bronze Telly winner. His more recent film projects have been Pyrates of the Chesapeake and Tread of the Tyrants Heel: Virginia’s War of 1812 Experience.

John is the recipient of the national Trust for Historic Preservation’s 1993 President’s Award for Historic Preservation; the Civil War Society’s Preservation Award in 1996; the United Daughters of the Confederacy’s Jefferson Davis Gold Medal in 1999; and the Daughters of the American Revolution Gold Historians Medal in 2009. Besides his lifelong interest in Tidewater Virginia’s Civil War experience, Quarstein is an avid duck hunter and decoy hunter and decoy collector. He lives on Old Point Comfort in Hampton, Virginia, and on his family’s Eastern Shore farm near Chestertown, Maryland.

As always, we look forward to a lively presentation from this most entertaining historian. We hope you will join us!

NEXT MONTH

Thursday, April 20, 2017, Dr. John Marsh on Stonewall Jackson and Autism

REMINDER: 2016 ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP DUES

Your Membership Dues for 2017 are now due. With no increase in price to PCWRT Membership, we hope you will encourage friends and neighbors to also join. All dues must be received by March 31, 2016 to insure continuation of your membership

Remit your membership today to:

Powhatan Civil War Round Table

P.O. Box 1144

Powhatan, Virginia 23139

PCWRT VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES

If you have an interest in becoming more involved with the PCWRT, or have a special skill to offer, why not consider volunteering? New ideas and new people are the life-blood of any organization, and the PCWRT is no different. We need new volunteers with new ideas to move forward into our second decade. To get involved, please see one of our Leadership Committee members at our next meeting.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

See our website’s FAQ page for a list of our most frequently asked questions. Don’t see your question addressed there? E-mail us at info@PowhatanCWRT.org

CIVIL WAR QUOTES

‘Again we marched on with the firm resolution in our hearts to do or die; and again we were halted, this time to receive orders not to fire a shot, meanwhile, continuing our interminable marching, as if there was no end. Almost unaware we found ourselves marching through a deserted town with here and there some negroes reported, but not a sign of the enemy. Upon asking where they might be, the negroes reported, “They’re all gone. They began going yesterday. Some went last night, and the rest this morning.” They had divided and their destinations were Mobile and Richmond. We occupied the city without a shot.’

John Ritland – on the capture of Meridian, Mississippi, Feb 1864

THIS MONTH IN THE CIVIL WAR 1863 - Courtesy History Learning Site

March 1, 1863 - Lincoln met with Secretary of War Edwin Stanton to discuss future military appointments.

March 2, 1863 - Congress approved the President’s list of promotions but also dismissed 33 officers for a variety of offences.

March 3, 1863 - Both Senate and House passed The Enrolment Act. All able-bodied men between 20 and 45 were to serve for three years. The act was unpopular with the public because of its compulsion. Congress must have sensed this as in 1863 only 21,000 men were conscripted and by the end of the war conscription only accounted for a total of 6% of the North’s army. Congress also suspended habeas corpus on this day – much to the anger of the Democrats in Congress.

March 6, 1863 - One of Hooker’s attempts to develop the Army of the Potomac was to ensure that it had the most modern weapons available. By this day, his men were starting to be equipped with the Sharp’s breech-loading carbine. This rifle gave Hooker’s army unrivalled firepower at close range.

March 10, 1863 - Such was the problem of desertion across all armies of the Union, that Lincoln pronounced an amnesty on this day for all those who were absent without leave. Any deserter who returned to duty before April 1st would not be punished.

March 13, 1863 - 62 women workers were killed in an explosion in a munitions factory near Richmond. The Confederacy was to become more and more reliant on female workers as the war progressed. March 24, 1863 - The last Union attempt to take Vicksburg failed. The Mississippi River was very high for this time of the year and it made navigation very difficult. Grant wanted to use the many waterways that surrounded Vicksburg to his advantage – but his plan failed.

March 26, 1863 - West Virginia voted to emancipate its slaves.

March 30, 1863 - Lincoln announced that April 30th would be a day of prayer and fasting throughout the Union

FEBRUARY 2017

ROBERT M. DUNKERLY

RAILROADS IN THE CIVIL WAR

This month we welcome Robert M. Dunkerly, a historian, award-winning author, and speaker who is actively involved in historic preservation and research.  He holds a degree in History from St. Vincent College and a Masters in Historic Preservation from Middle Tennessee State University.  Robert has worked at nine historic sites, written twelve books and over twenty articles.  His research includes archaeology, colonial life, military history, and historic commemoration.  He is a past President of the Richmond Civil War Round Table, and serves on the Preservation Commission for the American Revolution Round Table-Richmond.  He has taught courses at Central Virginia Community College, the University of Richmond, and the Virginia Historical Society.  Dunkerly is currently a Park Ranger at Richmond National Battlefield Park.  He has visited over 400 battlefields and over 1000 historic sites worldwide.  When not reading or writing, he enjoys hiking, camping, and photography.  

NEXT MONTH

Thursday, March 17, 2017 – John Quarstein - Topic to be announced.

SPECIAL LOCAL EVENT, FEBRUARY 13, 6:30 to 8:30 P.M.

History Happy Hour at Capital Ale House

Yankee Doodle to Dixie: The Importance of Music in Early Virginia

Music played a vital role in the social development of early Virginia. From formal dances to casual gatherings, discover how Virginians integrated music into their daily lives, including how Civil War soldiers used music to brighten up their days during one of America's darkest times. Led by Josh LeHuray, of the American Civil War Museum.

REMINDER: 2017 ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP DUES

Your Membership Dues for 2017 are now due. With no increase in price to PCWRT Membership, we hope you will encourage friends and neighbors to also join.  All dues must be received by March 31, 2017 to insure continuation of your membership

  • Individual Membership - $25.00
  • Family Membership    -    $35.00     

Membership includes 12 newsletters per year and entitles you to membership rates at our monthly dinner meetings. 

Remit your membership today to:

Powhatan Civil War Round Table

P.O. Box 1144

Powhatan, Virginia 23139

PCWRT VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES

If you have an interest in becoming more involved with the PCWRT, or have a special skill to offer, why not consider volunteering? New ideas and new people are the life-blood of any organization, and the PCWRT is no different. We need new volunteers with new ideas to move forward into our second decade.  To get involved, please see one of our Leadership Committee members at our next meeting.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

See our website’s FAQ page for a list of our most frequently asked questions. Don’t see your question addressed there? E-mail us at info@PowhatanCWRT.org

THIS MONTH IN THE CIVIL WAR 1863 - Courtesy History Learning Site

February 1, 1863 - The dollar used in the Confederacy was worth just 20% of what it did when the war broke out. Such was the success of the Federal Navy in the rivers of the South that a decision was taken to remove any stores of cotton away from rivers. Any cotton that could not be moved was burned to save it falling into the hands of the Union.

February 2, 1863 - Grant started his attempt to build a canal around to the rear of Vicksburg using the Yazoo River as his source of water. By doing this, Grant’s men would avoid the Confederate artillery stationed in Vicksburg.

February 3, 1863 - The French continued to offer attempts at mediation. Secretary of State Seward met the French ambassador in Washington DC to discuss such a move.

February 5, 1863 - The British government announced that any attempts at mediation would result in failure. Their lack of action was in stark contrast to the pro-active stance of the French government.

February 6, 1863 - The Federal government officially announced that it had rejected French offers of mediation.

February 9, 1863 - General Hooker started his reorganization of the Army of the Potomac. He decided that his first task was to improve its intelligence gathering. On his arrival at his headquarters he found no document that could inform him about the strength of the Army of Virginia. General Butterfield wrote: “There was no means, no organization, and no apparent effort to obtain such information. We were almost as ignorant of the enemy in our immediate front as if they had been in China. An efficient organization for that purpose was instituted, by which we were so enabled to get correct and proper information of the enemy, their strengths and movements.”

February 11, 1863 - Hooker then turned his attention to the conditions his men lived under, which he linked to the high levels of desertion. New huts were built that could cope with the winter weather and fresh fruit and vegetables were provided. Medical facilities were also improved. The impact on desertions was dramatic and even men who had deserted returned to their regiments.

February 12, 1863 - The Union’s naval blockade had a disastrous impact on the South’s economy and the river patrols of its flat-bottomed boats were equally as successful. However, the sheer size of the fleet operating meant that the Federal government faced a supply problem no one had encountered before. It was estimated that the North had to supply 70,000 bushels of coal each month to keep the fleet on the move. Food and water could be obtained locally but there was little chance of getting hold of large quantities of coal.

February 13, 1863 - General Hooker made what was to prove to be one of the most important changes to the Army of the Potomac during the war. Scattered cavalry units were amalgamated into one corps. No one was immediately appointed to command it as no army commander had ever had access to one concentrated cavalry unit. Hooker was willing to wait to appoint the most suitable candidate – he later selected General Stoneman to command it.

February 16, 1863 - The Senate passed the Conscription Act, which was passed, as volunteers for the Union army were not forthcoming.

February 22, 1863 - Hooker believed that his changes were starting to have an impact as the levels of scurvy and intestinal diseases dropped quite markedly.

February 25, 1863 - Congress authorized a national system of banking.

DECEMBER 2016

ANNUAL CHRISTMAS DINNER

We close out our 13th year with our annual Christmas dinner at the County Seat Restaurant on Thursday, December 15th.  With holiday music performed by the Judes Ferry Band, we look forward to celebrating the season with our members and guests.  Information about upcoming presentations in 2017 will soon follow, and we wish you and yours a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

UPCOMING TOPICS

2017 events to be announced.

PCWRT VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES

If you have an interest in becoming more involved with the PCWRT, or have a special skill to offer, why not consider volunteering? New ideas and new people are the life-blood of any organization, and the PCWRT is no different. We need new volunteers with new ideas to move forward into our second decade.  To get involved, please see one of our Leadership Committee members at our next meeting.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

See our website’s FAQ page for a list of our most frequently asked questions. Don’t see your question addressed there? E-mail us at info@PowhatanCWRT.org

CIVIL WAR QUOTES

“The north wind comes reeling in fitful gushes through the iron bars, and jingles a sleigh bell in the prisoner's ear, and puffs in his pale face with a breath suggestively odorous of eggnog....  Christmas Day!  A day which was made for smiles, not sighs - for laughter, not tears - for the hearth, not prison.”

Lt. Col. Frederic Cavada, Christmas 1863, Libby Prison, Richmond

THIS MONTH IN THE CIVIL WAR 1862 - Courtesy History Learning Site

December 1, 1862 - Lincoln addressed the 37th Congress in the capital and once again announced his intention of abolishing slavery within the United States

December 7, 1862 - A battle fought at Prairie Grove left 167 Union soldiers dead, 798 wounded and 183 missing. The Confederates lost 300 killed, 800 wounded and 250 missing

December 10, 1862 - The House of Representatives passed a bill to create the state of West Virginia.

December 13, 1862 - Burnside started his attack against Fredericksburg. However, the delay in doing so allowed Lee’s men time to dig themselves into well-fortified positions both in the town and in the hills that surrounded it. All attacks were repulsed. An attack on Confederate troops dug in on Marye’s Heights led to many Unionist deaths. By the end of the day the Army of the Potomac had lost 1200 killed, 9000 wounded and 2145 missing. Many of these were at Marye’s Heights. The Confederates had lost 570 killed, 3870 wounded and 127 missing. Many of the wounded left out on the battlefield died of the cold during the night. Lee was heard to say: “It is well that war is so terrible; we should grow too fond of it.”

December 14, 1862 - Burnside wanted to repeat the assault on Fredericksburg but was persuaded otherwise by his commanders in the field. The Army of the Potomac camped out along the Rappahannock River.

December 17, 1862 - General Grant’s reputation was tainted when he issued General Order Number 11, which expelled Jews from his department because “they are a class violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department.”

December 20, 1862 - A Confederate force attacked a major Union supply base at Holly Springs, Mississippi. Over $1 million in supplies was seized along with 1000 prisoners. Such a loss of supplies meant that Grant had to postpone his attack on Vicksburg.

December 23, 1862 - Jefferson Davis names General Butler, formally in charge of New Orleans, an outlaw and an enemy of Mankind. Davis stated that Butler would be hanged if the Confederates captured him.

December 28, 1862 - A unit of Union troops captured a considerable amount of Confederate supplies at Van Buren, Arkansas.

December 31, 1862 - Lincoln met Burnside to discuss what went wrong at Fredericksburg. The ironclad ‘Monitor’ sank in a storm.

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